Expansion and Reform - Middle School

Phoenix Fire Company

 Foremen, Phoenix Fire Company and Mechanic Fire Company, Charleston, South Carolina, ca. 1855. Image from Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division.

Learn more about the plantation system, politics, and culture of antebellum South Carolina.




See also the section on Slavery for more information about slavery and the plantation system.



transportation map
Excerpt of 1833 South Carolina transportation map showing 136 mile route of rail road from Charleston to Hamburg, built and operated by the South Carolina Canal and Rail Road Company. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress.


  • War of 1812 and the Seminole War
    Many South Carolinians fought in these two wars. See a coat worn by Major General William R. Butler in the War of 1812.
  • War of 1812 and and the Battle of New Orleans
    Major General Andrew Jackson led the American forces, who defeated the British in the final major battle of the War of 1812.  
  • The Mexican War
    The Mexican War was fought from 1846-48 and many of the soldiers became leaders and generals in the Civil War.
  • South Carolina in the Mexican War
    Learn more about the Palmetto Regiment that fought in Mexico. The first flag to fly over Mexico City was the regimental flag of the Palmetto Regiment.


DISCUS Explore with Discus*

* Requires access to the Discus databases. Learn more here.

  • King Cotton 
    King Cotton was an expression popularized by Senator James Hammond in 1858, saying “You dare not make war on cotton-no power on earth dares make war upon it. Cotton is king.”
  • History of Cotton 
    Read about the history of cotton in the United States.
  • Jacksonian Democracy 
    President Andrew Jackson became a symbol of the political power of the common people. The power of the national government was strengthened while he was in office at the expense of states’ rights.